2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY • EPA selected dredging as the remedy for PCBs in sediments in the Upper Hudson in 2002, after 12 years of study and advice from scientists, environmental groups, elected officials and local community representatives. New York State supported and concurred with the remedy. • In 2015, GE completed a $1.7 billion dredging project in New York’s Upper Hudson River — one of the largest and most logistically complex environmental cleanups in U.S. history. Since then, PCB levels in water have declined as much as 73 percent. • EPA has said the remedy will be protective of human health and the environment. No additional dredging in the Upper or Lower Hudson was recommended. • Before selecting the dredging project, EPA considered multiple options ranging from no dredging to an even larger dredging project. The chosen remedy was grounded in a careful, quantitative analysis and tailored to the specific conditions of the site. • EPA’s goal was the careful and strategic removal of enough PCBs to accelerate the decline in PCB levels in fish with the least damage to the river ecology and disruption to local communities. • To forecast the potential risks and benefits of various dredging approaches, EPA developed a computer model based on river data. The model demonstrated that additional dredging beyond what EPA ordered would not deliver better results in a significantly shorter time frame. Indeed, it showed that more dredging would not be significantly more protective, but that the strategic dredging of sediments with elevated PCB concentrations (the remedy implemented by GE) would deliver nearly the same risk-reduction benefit. • For the foreseeable future, water, sediment and fish data will be collected. EPA will continue to monitor river conditions closely.